The Human Relations Movement began with the Hawthorne Studies in the understanding of Organization with Hawthorne Experiments.
Some of the major phases of Hawthorne experiments are as follows
Experiments to determine the effects of changes in illumination on productivity, illumination experiments.
Relay Assembly Test Room Experiments
Experiments to determine the effects of changes in hours and other working conditions on productivity, relay assembly test room experiments.
Mass Interviewing Programme
Conducting ‘plant-wide interviews to determine worker attitudes and sentiments, mass interviewing programme.
Bank Wiring Observation Room Experiment
Determination and analysis of social organisation at work, bank wiring observation room experiments
Clusions of Hawthorne Studies / Experiments
The conclusions derived from the Hawthorne Studies were as follows :
- The social and psychological factors are responsible for workers’ productivity and job satisfaction. Only good physical working conditions are not enough to increase productivity.
- The informal relations among workers influence the workers’ behaviour and performance more than the formal relations in the organisation.
- Employees will perform better if they are allowed to participate in decision-making affecting their interests.
- Employees will also work more efficiently, when they believe that the management is interested in their welfare.
- When employees are treated with respect and dignity, their performance will improve.
- Financial incentives alone cannot increase the performance: Social and Psychological needs must also be satisfied in order to increase productivity.
- Good communication between the superiors and subordinates can improve the relations and the productivity of the subordinates.
- Special attention and freedom to express their views Will improve the petformance of the workers.